1. Mechanical injury
In open-pit mines, in the process of perforation, shoveling, transportation, discharge and other operations, it is easy to cause mechanical injuries due to human error or equipment failure.
2. Blasting accidents
Blasting operations are an indispensable process in mine mining, and blasting accidents are also one of the common casualties in mines. A slight carelessness in the whole process of procurement, transportation, storage, storage, distribution, processing and use of explosives will cause serious accidents, resulting in casualties and property losses of operators, affecting safe production.
3. Electrical accidents
The main manifestations of electrical hazards are electrical fire hazards and electric shock hazards. Metal and non-metal mine production systems and auxiliary systems use more electrical equipment, if the electrical equipment and facilities are overloaded for a long time, a lot of heat is generated, resulting in the destruction of electrical internal insulators, the failure of protection monitoring devices, and the cause of fire and explosion; In addition, distribution lines, switches, fuses, latch holders, lighting appliances, motors, etc. may cause electrical damage and may also become the source of fire.
4. Open-pit mine slope landslideWith the increase of the
mining depth of open-pit mines, the slope height is also increasing, and the instability phenomena such as landslides are increasing year by year. According to the incomplete statistics of large and medium-sized open-pit mines in China, unstable slopes or slopes with potential landslide danger account for about 15%~20% of the total slopes of mines, and individual mines are as high as 30%.
5. Landslide and debris flow accidents in the dumping site
As a giant artificial loose accumulation, the nature of the dumping site determines that it is easy to form landslides, debris flows and other accidents. Moreover, mining enterprises generally build dumping sites in the upstream areas of villages or mining areas, so they also pose a threat to the safety of the lives and property of the people downstream.Other accidents
: poisoning asphyxiation, flood accidents, fire accidents.
(1) The width of the safety platform should not be too narrow, generally leaving 1
(3) Zoning expansion. Expansion stripping and normal stripping should be partitioned operation, such as staggered operation in the same section, according to the size of the expansion height difference, the horizontal staggering distance should generally be greater than 200m.
(4) Directional blasting. Directional blasting is used to prevent the blasting direction from being turned to the side of the goaf to prevent the expansion blasting of rolling stones from threatening the safety of normal mining and stripping operations in the lower part. It is strictly forbidden to blast two adjacent combined steps at the same time.
(5) Ensure the safety of transportation operations. During the steep stripping stage, such as the upper expansion operation, no transport equipment is allowed to pass.
1. Safety inspection of piercing operation
(1) When the drilling rig walks on a large slope (greater than 15°), the drilling frame must be lowered and anti-overturning measures must be taken; The main frame must be lowered when passing under the transmission line.
(2) The drilling rig does not operate at the same time as the electric shovel with the lower step close to the bottom line of the slope.
(3) The operator must wear a safety belt when dealing with faults or performing normal maintenance on the main frame.
2. Safe disposal of piercing operations
(1) When the drilling rig stabilizes the vehicle, it should maintain a sufficient safety distance from the top line of the step slope. The minimum distance from the center of the jack to the top line of the step slope: 1m for the trolley, 2.5m for the tooth wheel drill, DTH drill, steel rope impact drilling rig, and 3.5m for the soft rock mass. When the drilling rig is operating, there should be no people on its platform, and non-operators should not stay around it. If the drilling rig is stopped for a long time, the power supply on the machine should be cut off.
(2) When the drilling rig walks near the edge of the steps, check whether the walking route is safe; The minimum distance from the outer protrusion of the trolley to the top line of the step slope is 2m, and the minimum distance from the outer protrusion to the top line of the step slope is 3m.
(3) When the drilling rig is moving, there should be someone under the machine to guide and supervise. When walking, the driver should sound the horn first, and there should be no one in front of and behind the tracks; should not make sharp turns at 90° or walk on soft ground; When passing through high and low voltage lines, a sufficient safety distance should be maintained. The rig should not stay on the decline for a long time; Without adequate lighting, you should not walk long distances at night.
(4) When moving cables and stopping, cutting, and sending power supplies, high-voltage insulating gloves and insulating shoes should be strictly worn, and cable hooks that meet safety requirements should be used. In the event of a ground fault of the drilling rig, it should be stopped immediately, and no one should get on or off the drilling rig.
1. Preparation before blasting operations
(1) Prepare tools and utensils for charging.
(2) Know the weather conditions.
(3) Do a good job of contacting relevant parties before blasting.
(4) Do a good job of vigilance.
(5) Acceptance of the gun hole: whether the gun hole meets the design requirements and whether it is deflected; Whether there is a phenomenon of plugging holes and jams, and whether there is a risk of collapse of the chamber; Whether there is water in the gun hole.
After inspection, if a problem is found in the gun hole, it must be dealt with before the charge can be detonated.
2. Safety management and inspection of blasting operations
(1) Leaders at all levels should put blasting operations on the important agenda of safe production, strengthen supervision, and have a special person responsible, and the blasting operation should be commanded by a special person.
(2) Establish and improve various safety management systems for blasting operations and strictly implement them.
(3) Conscientiously organize the training of demolition personnel, improve their comprehensive quality, and hold certificates to work.
(4) Strengthen the management of blasting materials and strictly implement the distribution system. After each blast, the blaster must return the remaining blasting equipment to the warehouse in time.
(5) Blasting operations must be carried out in accordance with the approved blasting design document or blasting instructions.
(6) It is necessary to establish a blasting signal system and do a good job in vigilance. Announce the warning signal first in chronological order and start clearing the field; After clearing the scene, confirm that personnel, equipment, etc. evacuate the blasting warning area, the warning distance must leave a sufficient safety factor, all vigilant personnel are in place, and when there are safe detonation conditions, an explosion signal is issued, and the detonator is allowed to detonate; After the safety waiting time (generally not less than 5 minutes, special circumstances determined by design), the inspectors enter the blasting alert range for inspection, and after confirming the safety, a blasting alert is released.(7) Blasting
operations are prohibited when the blasting operation site has any of the following circumstances: (1) Preparation is not strictly in accordance with the requirements of the "Blasting Safety Regulations"; (2) There is a risk of slope slipping; (3) Blasting parameters or construction quality do not meet the design requirements; (4) Endangering the safety of equipment or buildings, without effective protective measures; (5) There is no alert on the boundary of the danger zone; (6) The danger of water inrush at the operation site or the abnormal temperature of the cannon hole.
(8) It is forbidden for personnel engaged in blasting equipment processing and blasting operations to wear chemical fiber clothing.
(9) After blasting, the site must be inspected and the blasting record must be filled in.
3. Blind cannon treatment
In blasting work, the phenomenon of blind fire rejection of explosive packs (detonators or detonators) and unexploded explosives due to various reasons is called blind guns, including residual explosions and explosion rejection.
The handling of blind artillery must comply with the following:(1) Before handling blind artillery, the
demolition leader shall determine the warning range, and set up a warning at the boundary of the area, and unrelated personnel shall not be allowed to enter the warning area when handling blind artillery.
(2) When the power breaks out of the blind gun, the power supply should be cut off immediately, and the blind gun circuit should be short-circuited in time.
(3) The initiator pack in the gun hole and the medicine pot should not be pulled out or taken out.
(4) After the blind cannon is treated, the blasting pile should be carefully inspected, and the residual blasting equipment should be collected and destroyed; Precautions should be taken until it is not possible to confirm that there is no residual blasting equipment in the blast pile.
(5) After the blind cannon is treated, the handler shall fill in the registration card or submit a report, explaining the cause of the blind cannon, the method and result of the treatment, and the preventive measures.
Shoveling is the central part of the entire production process of open-pit mining.
1. Safety inspection of shovel operation
(1) The distance between two or more excavators operating on the same platform and excavators operating in adjacent two stages at the same time must meet the provisions of the Safety Regulations for Metal and Non-metal Open-pit Mines.
(2) The excavator walks within the stable range of the working platform.
(3) When the excavator and front loader are shoveled, it is forbidden for the bucket to pass above the vehicle cab.
2. Safe disposal of shoveling operations
(1) The excavator whistle or alarm should be intact. Warning signals should be given when performing various operations. When working at night, all signals and lights under the car and in the front and rear should be intact.
(2) When the excavator is operating, if it finds suspended rock blocks or signs of collapse, blind guns, etc., it should immediately stop the operation and drive the equipment to a safe area.
(3) When the excavator is operating, no one should stay under the cantilever and bucket and near the working face.
(4) When loading, the bucket should not press the car gang, and the unloading height of the bucket should not exceed 0.5m, so as not to shock the driver and smash the vehicle.
(5) Excavator buckets should not be used to handle sticky van vehicles.
(6) When two or more excavators operate on the same platform, the spacing of the excavators: when transporting cars, it should not be less than 3 times of its maximum excavation radius, and should not be less than 50m; When transporting locomotives, it should not be less than the length of two trains.
(7) Excavators that operate up and down steps at the same time should be staggered along the steps by a certain distance.
(8) When the excavator passes through cables, feng shui pipes and railway crossings, measures should be taken to protect cables, feng shui pipes and railway crossings; When walking on soft or muddy roads, measures should be taken to prevent subsidence; Anti-slip measures should be taken when going uphill and downhill.
(9) When the excavator goes uphill and downhill, the drive shaft should always be in the downhill direction; The bucket should be unloaded and placed at an appropriate distance from the ground; The cantilever axis should be consistent with the direction of travel.
(10) When the excavator is running, the position of the cantilever should not be adjusted.
Open-pit mine transportation is one of the main processes of open-pit mining, including road transportation, railway transportation, belt conveyor transportation, chute flat chute transportation, slope winch transportation, etc., with a focus on road transportation.
1. Safety inspection of road transportation
In order to ensure the safety of road transport, the following should be done:
(1) Dump trucks are strictly prohibited from carrying flammable and explosive materials; Outside the cab platform, footpegs and body are not allowed to carry people. It is forbidden to lift the body during operation.
(2) The width of the road surface of the two-lane should ensure the safety of the car. If the sight distance of the meeting car at the bend does not meet the requirements, the lane should be separated. Sharp bends, steep slopes, and dangerous areas should have warning signs. For curves on hillside fills, filled sections with large slopes, and high embankment roadbed sections, guardrails and retaining walls should be set on the outside. For long ramps on major transportation roads and liaison roads, car avoidance lanes should be set up according to operational safety needs.
(3) Under normal operating conditions, similar vehicles should not overtake, and the distance between front and rear vehicles should be kept appropriate. There should be no unexcused parking on production trunk lines and ramps.
(4) When foggy days or smoke and dust affect visibility, the front yellow lights and marker lights should be turned on, and the right side should slow down, and the distance between the front and rear vehicles should not be less than 30m. When the visual distance is less than 20m, the driving should be suspended on the right, and the warning lights in front of and behind the car should not be extinguished. When the road is slippery in the ice and snow or rainy season, there should be anti-skid measures and slow down; The distance between the front and rear vehicles should not be less than 40m; When towing other vehicles, effective safety measures should be taken and there should be a special person to command.
(5) When the dump truck enters the working face for loading, it should be stopped at 0.5m outside the swing range of the tail of the excavator to prevent the excavator from turning around and crashing the vehicle. When loading, the vehicle should not be inspected and maintained.
(6) The unloading platform should have sufficient shunting width. The unloading site should be equipped with solid and reliable blocking facilities, and a special person should be set up to command. Night loading and unloading truck locations should be well lit.
(7) Downhill driving should not be in neutral gear. When stopping on a ramp, the driver should not leave; Parking brakes should be used and safety measures should be taken.
2. Safety inspection of belt conveyor transportation
(1) There should be sidewalks on both sides of the belt conveyor, and the width of the sidewalks on the side of frequent pedestrians should not be less than 1.0m; the other side should not be less than 0.6m.
(2) The operation of the belt conveyor should be observed: no person should take the non-passenger belt conveyor; Materials other than prescribed materials and equipment and materials that are excessively long shall not be transported; The debris on the conveyor belt, transmission wheel and redirection wheel should be stopped in time, and the ore should not be cleared under the running conveyor belt; Where it is necessary to cross the conveyor, a span bridge with railings should be provided; The machine head, reducer and other rotating parts should be equipped with protective covers; When the conveyor is running, it should not be filled with oil, inspected and repaired.
(3) Each loading and unloading point should be equipped with protective devices such as empty warehouse and full warehouse interlocked with the conveyor, and equipped with sound and light signals.
(4) The belt conveyor should be equipped with a device to prevent the tape from mistracking, tearing and breaking, and have reliable braking, tape and roll cleaning, as well as overspeed protection, overload protection, anti-block impact and other devices; There should be signals, electrical interlocks and emergency stop devices on the line.
(5) When replacing the barrier, scraper and idler, stop the stop, cut off the power supply, and have a special person to supervise.